How to Dump SQL Result to a Text File Using cli

Just a quick tip on how to dump a sql result to a txt file.

mysql -e “select * from [table]” -u[user] -p [database] > sqlresult.txt

For example:

mysql -e "select * from orders where product_id = 15" -uroot -p  > sqlresult.txt

Related: Some MySQL cli Syntax ExamplesBasic MySQL Performance MonitoringMySQL Performance Tuning Tips

Updates Needed When Upgrading from Apache 2.2 to 2.4

I updated from Ubuntu 12.04 to Ubuntu 14.04 on a virtual private server.

When you do that update, Apache is updated from 2.2 to 2.4. Certain changes mean that until you update the site-available configuration files no web sites will work.

The quick checklist of what you have to do for each configuration

  1. update the file to add or edit the directory details (where /var/www/ is the path to the website files on your server)
    <Directory /var/www/>
       Require all granted

    Remember if you have details needed for WordPress those instructions need to remain. I didn’t have a Directory area listed on my non-Wordpress sites.

  2. The files now need a .conf extension so move the rename/move the files to the new name
    sudo mv
  3. Enable the new configuration
    sudo a2ensite
  4. Reload apache to reload the new configuration
    sudo service apache2 reload

More details from Linode.

The upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS was interrupted (I quit a window using the wrong command – oops). Luckily it wasn’t a big deal. I was able to delete the lock file.

sudo rm /var/lib/dpkg/lock

Then trying to update again

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

gave a message telling me what command to use to have the upgrade continue.

sudo dpkg --configure -a

which seemed to work fine.

Related: Bash Profile Adjustments, Scrolling HistoryChecklist: Setting Up a New Domain on VPSModSecurity: Adjustments for WordPress

Don’t Copy-Paste Directly from Website to Terminal

Good reminder and discussion on Hacker News about the danger of copy-paste from a website into terminal.

When copying from a website it is easy for hidden text to be included in the clipboard. If you paste that into terminal it can be executed before you see the code. Including new line commands in the copied text will automatically execute the commands (in most terminal applications).

The best solution is to paste the clipboard content into something to view the text before pasting into clipboard. The best way is probably to recopy it. I use this double copy method to get rid of formatting I don’t want (when the clipboard includes things like font styling info you don’t want – not relavent when pasting into terminal but the pasting [into say vim, which won’t include the extra formatting details] and recopying part is similar). It may be possible to have text hidden (write it in a way where it won’t show up on the screen but is in the clipboard – using some tricky unicode characters or something).

Some people put # before pasting into clipboard but that only protects the first “line.” Any new lines could still be run without you seeing them.

The discussion warns against a malicious website intentionally creating a problem but if you paste in multiple lines there is also just the danger from the lines executing immediately when you wanted to edit the line before it was executed.

Related: Customizing the Command Prompt for TerminalBash Profile Adjustments, Scrolling HistoryAdding a Key to Your Server for SSH Login

Set the Web Server to Use the Domain Without www

The main reason to bother with this is to help search rankings. Sub-domains (for example, and are treated as separate websites even if you have entirely the same content displayed for both. If 20% of the links to your site use the www and 80% don’t then your sites ranking by search engines is less than it would be if it was just treated as one site.

You can set the domain to use in Google webmaster tools. But that doesn’t do anything for all the other search engines. Also if you have both, some reports some will keep statistics separately for the non-www and www domain (Google Adsense does this, for example).

Using virtual hosts file (sites-enabled)

For Apache you can place the following code in your virtual hosts file (in the sites-available directory under Apache).

Replace with your domain name.

<Directory /srv/www/>
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^$ [NC]    
  RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

Then you need to capture the update and reload Apache.

Disable the site (in order to enable it with the updates)

sudo a2dissite

Enable the site

sudo a2ensite

Reload Apache (new way – Ubuntu 12.04)

sudo service apache2 reload

Old way to reload Apache was > sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload

If when you try to reload you get this error message:

“Invalid command ‘RewriteEngine’, perhaps misspelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration” then enable modrewrite on apache:

sudo a2enmod rewrite

You should then be told to restart apache

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Using .htaccess

Or you can include the following in your .htaccess file

  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^$ [NC]    
  RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

Related: Checklist for Setting Up a New Domain on VPSPhusion Passenger Tips and Troubleshooting Ideas

If you wanted to force www to be used instead just flip the regular expression around:

<Directory /srv/www/>
  RewriteEngine On
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^$ [NC]    
  RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

Replace Text in Files Recursively (Linux)

To replace text in all the files in a directory, recursively, you can use grep.

sudo grep -rl texttoreplace /somedirectory/ | sudo xargs sed -i ‘s/repacethis/withthis/g’

sudo grep -rl oldtext /example/directory/ | sudo xargs sed -i 's/oldtext/newtext/g'

The g on the end, lets it replace all the instances of the text in each file.

More ubuntu and linux tips and code samples

Code to Display text only on WordPress Blog Home Page

Cut and past php code to determine if it is the wordpress blog home page (and only the home page itself).

<?php if (is_home() && !is_paged()): ?>

Example, to print john if it is a “homepage” templated page and jill otherwise:

<?php if (is_home(); ?>

  if($name == 'john'){
    echo 'Hi John';
  }else if($name == 'jill'){
    echo 'Hi Jill';
    echo 'Hi';

Adding a Model in Ruby on Rails

for Rails 2.*
Not for Rails 3

How to add a model in rails

  • ./script/generate resource MODELNAME
  • ./script/generate resource article
  • edit migrate file
  • edit model.rb – to add associations and validations
  • edit controller.rb – add the 7 rest methods
  • rake db:migrate – to run the new migration
  • If you have to add a table (like a join table) you can do something like, for example
  • ./script/generate migration add_join_table_for_articles_and_authors

Update to the routes file should be taken care of by generate resource, but might want to check).